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Hoàng Kim kỷ niệm 10 năm thành lập
Hoàng Kim kỷ niệm 10 năm thành lập
Tẩm quất Hoàng Kim
Tẩm quất Hoàng Kim
Tẩm quất Hoàng Kim
Tẩm quất Hoàng Kim

UNIT 20: Word form (dạng của từ)

Topic 17: Politics (chính trị)

 

    I.        Prefixes (tiền tố)

1.  Common prefixes (các hậu tố thông thường)

-anti (= against): antibiotic, anti-government

-co (= together) co-author, co-worker

-multi (= many/much): multiply, multinational, multicultural

-over (too much): overweight, overexcited, overcrowded

-super (= very big): superman, super-market

-ex (former): ex-boyfriend, ex-wife,

-pre (= before): predict, pre-tell, prehistory

-re (= again): redo, recycle, repeat.

-trans (= across/though): transform, translate

-inter(=between): international, internship

-uni (= one): uniform, unify

2.  Negative prefixes (các hậu tố phủ định)

-de (= down/off): decrease, devalue

-dis (= apart): disconnect, disable

-il (+l): illegal, illiberal

-im (+m or p): impossible, impolite, immoral

-in: indirect, independence

-ir (+r): irregular

-mis (= wrongly): mistake, misunderstand

-non: non-stop

-un: undo, uncomfortable, unusual, unfortunately

II. Suffixes (hậu tố)

1.  Nouns

-al: refusal, betrayal, arrival

-ance / ence: performance, existence, silence

-ation: information, education, organization

-ing: meeting, travelling, walking

-(i)ty: certainty, stupidity, unity

-ment: management, government, achievement

-ness: happiness, sadness, loneliness

-ogy: biology, geology

-ship: friendship, relationship

-sion/-tion: decision, mention, pollution

2.  Nouns for jobs and people (các danh từ chỉ công việc và người)

-er/-or: teacher, worker, actor

-ist: typist, tourist, scientist

-ant/-ent: assistant, student

-an/-ian: politician, musician

-ee: employee, examinee 

  • Watch out!
  • Cook=people who cook food
  • Cooker=cooking machine

3.  Verbs

-ate: participate

-en: soften, weaken, whiten, lengthen, shorten

-fy: beautify, satisfy

-ise/-ize: sympathize, organize

4.  Adjectives

-able/-ible: possible, eatable, acceptable

-al: musical, personal, national

-ed: interested, bored, tired

-ent: dependent

-ful/-less: careful/careless, helpful/helpless

-ic: energetic, economic

-ing: interesting, boring

-ite: polite

-ive: active, expensive

-ly: friendly, monthly

-ous: famous, dangerous, ambitious

-y: salty, happy, lucky, snowy

 III. Gerunds and other words in more than one word class (danh động từ và những từ có nhiều dạng)

1. The -ing form of a verb (-ing suffix)can also be a noun. We call it gerund. (dạng –ing của động từ (hậu tố -ing) có thể là một danh từ. Chúng ta gọi đó là danh động từ)

to swim: I’m swimming at this moment. (verb) I like swimming.(noun)

to speak: I’m speaking English. (verb) I’m good at speaking English. (noun)

to go: She was going to the concert. (verb) Going to concerts is fun!

2. Several words can have a noun, verb, adjective and adverb form. (một vài từ có thể có cả dạng danh từ, động từ, tính từ, trạng từ)

  • Noun, verb, adjective, adverb

-beauty, beautify, beautiful, beautifully

-competition / competitor, to compete, competitive, competitively

-creation, create, creative, creatively

-management / manager, to manage, manageable, manageably

-notice, to notice, noticeable, noticeably

-sadness, to sadden, sad, sadly

IV. Conversion (sư chuyển đổi)

Words which belong to different word classes without changing the form. (những từ thuộc về loại từ khác nhau nhưng không thay đổi dạng của nó)

  • Examples:
  • a shop-to shop
  • a cold-cold
  • dry-to dry
  • light- a light-to light

1.  Compound words (từ ghép)

Two or more connected words, which can be written together, separated or connected by a binding. (hai hoặc nhiều hơn 2 từ kết hợp với nhau, có thể viết cùng nhau, tách ra hoặc có sự kết nối với nhau)

a)         Compound nouns (danh từ ghép)

songwriter, ticket office, weather forecast (noun + noun)

chewing gum, swimming pool (gerund + noun)

air condition, taxi-driving, sightseeing (noun + gerund)

black board (adjective + noun)

b)         Compound adjectives (tính từ ghép)

seasick, worldwide (noun+adjective)

hand-made, record-breaking (noun+participle)

dark brown, light blue (adjective+adjective)

English-speaking, well-dressed (adjective/adverb+participle)

a three-hour trip, a ten mile walk, a sixteen-year-old girl (number+noun(+adjective))

V.         Exercise

1.         Put the words into the correct form

a. The (friend) between Vietnam and China is good.

b. They are (good) qualified teachers.

c. They seem to be (friend). We dislike them.

d. There will be a (meet) in this room.

e. We saw some (beauty) girls there.

f. This river is extremely (pollute).

g. They enjoy the (peace) atmosphere here.

h. The (Malaysia) unit of currency is the Ringgit.

i. In (add), there are other religions.

j. They sing the (nation) anthem of Vietnam.

k. There is an (nation) match between Vietnam and Laos on VTV3.

l. Ao Dai is the (tradition) women’ dress in Vietnam.

m. (tradition), Ao Dai is worn by women.

n. Maxim Gorky is a famous (poetry). His (poetry) are very interesting. Poetry: thơ, thơ ca; poet:  nhà thơ; poem: bài thơ

o. Ao Dai is always (fashion).

p. Jeans are (complete) made from cotton.

q. (sell) of clothes always goes up (đi lên).

r. At the (enter-entrance, a đọc thành ơ lối vào, cổng) to the village, we saw the accident.

s. They had an (enjoy) day by the river.

t. Our boys play (disappoint- tedly) today.

u. We need further (inform).

v. Look at the (advertise), Michael Jackson is so famous.

w. It is an (interest) program.

x. We felt (interest) in the show.

y. It is cheap. It is (expensive).

z. The (develop) of TV is always fast.

aa. Libraries are helpful in (develop) children’s love for books.

ab. The internet has (increase) developed nowadays.

ac. The internet is one of the most important (invent).

ad. Everyone has their (limit-limitation) which are hardly recognized by themselves.

ae. The website is not (use) for teenagers. It is (use).

af. Their (communicate) is always good.

ag. Listen (care), please.

ah. We are (disappoint) that our environment is harmed.

aj. We are worried about the (pollute) here.

VI. TOPIC 17 Politics

News from BBC

1. Ministers from 17 nations in the Asia- Pacific Area say their first meeting about security has started a new period of cooperation. The Ministers discussed security concerns with Chinese, European, and American officials at a meeting organized by the Association of the South East Asian Nations.

2. Japanese voters have elected Murayama as the country’s new Prime Minister. Mr. Murayama is the chairman of the Social Democratic Party. He replaces Hata who resigned on Saturday after just 2 months in office. Mr. Murayama received 261 votes in the Lower House of the Japanese Parliament. The former Prime Minister received 214 votes.

3. Spain and Vietnam plan to sign a new agreement about their economic cooperation. The foreign ministers of the two countries said at a conference on Tuesday that the new agreement will be signed at the end of this month. On the conference, the Spanish minister also said that this event will improve the friendship and the relationships between their 2 countries.

Questions:

  1. Who said that the security has started a new period of cooperation?
  2. Who has been elected as the new Prime Minister in Japan?
  3. Who resigned after 2 months in office?
  4. How many votes did Mr. Murayama receive?
  5. Which agreement do Spain and Vietnam plan to sign? 
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